Taking Biology in a Fictional Setting Too Seriously

Luka started his life as a human and became a Shade, and he aided in the production of kids that showed Shade traits. He was not only physically affected by the Shade blood he drank, but so fundamentally changed that his genes/DNA sequences changed too. This could be because the blood was from a very powerful shade (Juniper). I find that exciting and a little scary because of just how darn Extreme that is. I also find it interesting that he was changed both physically (including organs I'm guessing) and genetically, but not psychologically (THE BRAIN IS AN ORGAN-), but then again Shades think and process like the majority of recognized species (which includes Humans).


Luka STILL requires more than what Shades do. His body cannot properly function on souls alone, and when his body does not have actual physical sustenance, it shows. Not only does it show in thinness, but the lack of sufficient nutrients also probably dampens his mood a lot, and may have been why in the game he was very focused on souls and violence, and had very little patience. His focus on souls is him still being hungry/not satisfied for long, and his mood/lack of patience is the result of being hangry. This idiot needed a bagel and some bacon for so long and he never even considered it.

So what if to conserve energy, his body took on the form of a Shade to try and process the only nutrients he was getting. Although the souls alone are still not sufficient, it's easier energy-wise to function as closely to a Shade as possible. This would also justify him transitioning from the humanoid shape in the cellar to a shape typical of Shades with the kind of blood he drank, as opposed to literally any other form.

So then why the heck, when Juniper's blood Rearranged His Genetic Sequences, In Every Cell Of His Body, does he STILL have human traits and requires human food?

Actually you know what I'm gathering up all of Luka's traits that Aren't Shade traits

Juniper didn't begin her life as a Shade either. Luka drank a vial of her blood, which then went to change all of her cells too. It's sort of like-- a game of telephone but with transformation that's being run by a vial's-worth of blood. Biology and regeneration isn't perfect, and Juniper's blood already isn't "pure" Shade because of her starting out as a human, too. It's like with recessive alleles in genetics but not everyone knows about recessive genes so uh. Basically, when Juniper transformed, some of the genes in her DNA retained sequences (information) that could lead to showing Human traits (such as needing physical food and more stable temperature that isn't Very Very Cold). Due to her blood being drank by another Human, some of that information was completed by the information in Luka's own genes, leading to him having human traits while basically being a Shade.

ANYWAYS back to trying to do pecking Biology Studying for the Exam


Diploid is when chorosomes are doubled in a cell. Haploid is when there's no doubling. Genetic information is shuffled and divided in cell meiosis.

Very similar chromosomes are called homologs (one set looks like XX) and are paired with their "twins"

(During that homologs cross over to exchange genetic info(unique to meiosis and is there to produce genetic diversity!))

Homologs are divided and each half is given to two haploid daughter cells. (It looks like X)

Chromosomes become chromatids during meiosis II (Chomatids look like I). There are four daughter cells total.

All offspring are genetically differnet from one another (twins are weird)

The space between the two meiotic cycles has no interphase

Each offspring inherits information from each parent


DNA (GACT) and RNA (GUAC) transfer genetic information

Shared prokaryote and eukaryote traits: ribosomes, DNA, cell membrane


The chi-square value test is used to determine whether or not something is random chance or statistically significant.

Chi-square equation: (oberved value - expected value)^2 /expected value = x(usually the x would have a line over it)


Usually alleles aren't entirely dominant or recessive; they can blend like gradiant or clash as phenotypes (shown traits) of the organism they're in.

Traits can also have more than one allele that leads to that phenotype

When crossing over, genes are independently assorted. This means that the crossing over/not crossing over of other genes does not impact the chances of any other gene. Linked genes violate the mendelian law.

Genes that are linked are located very closely to eachother on the same chromosome. They are unlikely to be separated.


The environment can change which genes are expressed. (Hydrangea colors changing in response to changes in soil pH levels!)


Pedigrees show the path of phenotypes within multiple generations


Hardy-Weinberg equillibrium: when the allele frequencies are the same.

Large population

Random mating

No mutations

No gene flow

No natural selection


The Hardy-Weinberg equations are best used as baselines for what allele/genotype frequencies should be in a population.


Calculation for degrees of freedom: take the total amount of possibilities and then subtract one


All life uses some form of glycolysis (breaking down glucose for energy)

glycolysis produces a little bit of ATP, NADH, Water, and Pyruvate

Pyruvate makes Acetyl-CoA and goes into the Krebs cycle

The Krebs cycle produces NADH, Carbon Dioxide, and a little ATP. (this takes place in the mitochondrial MATRIX. I imagine the setting of The Matrix has a bad atmosphere with a lot of Cardon Dioxide floating around


Etc., the Electron Transport Chain, produces a lot of ATP! Like, about 38 of it per round.

Protons are pumped out of the cell membrane and want to float back in, so they do it through the ATP Synthase (like a toll-gate) because they're charged and chan't get through the cell wall.

The Electron Transport Chain also makes FAD and Water.


Photosynthesis sure is a thing isn't it?! Anyways, there's light reactions and the calvin cycle

The Light-Dependent-Reaction is sort of like the ETC in that it takes place on the cell membrane (in this case of the thylakoid lumen). it starts with Photosystem 2 getting excited by the sunlight (during that H2O becomes Oxygen). After some steps the excitement ends up in Photosystem 1 and gets recharged by more sunlight. The plant's ATP synthase then has charged hydrogen flow through it and creates ATP into the chloroplast stroma.


Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and consist of deoxyribose or just ribose, a phosphate cloud, and a nucleic base. The base can be any letter in GUAC (if for RNA) or GACT (if for DNA).

DNA runs antiparallel to each strand.


In the cell cycle, the G1 phase is preparation. A cell grows bigger. In the S phase, all the DNA gets doubled. In the G2 phase, the cell keeps on growing. Then in the M phase, the cell undergoes mitosis or meiosis (so much prep for such a short moment...). Then cytokinesis happens!

Cells that don't need to replicate remain in a G0 phase, where they don't do anything for duplication/reparation.

All chromosomes are equally divided in Mitosis. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.


DNA Replication

Three to five we'll arrive.

Transcription creates RNA

Translation is changing nucleic code to amino acids/polypeptide chains


Cell communication

Negative feedback loops maintain homeostasis; positive feedback loops create change (like pregnancy)



Choroplasts look like they have little cities in them,,,,


How does cell meiosis impact the development of Hybrid Species in Cano iCarly?

Genes for different traits are shuffled in meiosis. The thing is, there are so, so many different traits between different species.


It's got something to do with the magic energy stuff. Shapeshifters may hold the key.

The properties of water..

Mariposa has some form of Fairy gigantism


Heehoo!!! Uwahoo!!! Luz is canonically neurodivergent! Research is good! So are characters! I'm finding making a website intimidating so I'm fucking around over here! I'm a little meow-meow I guess I dunno. I want to talk about characters. I want people to know about our characters! Maybe I'm afraid of doing too little or doing stuff in the wrong way? But there is no wrong way! This is MY website. Also man I like doing multiple things at once right now... maybe I'm trying to maximize my time by multitasking... yeah that's not good back to just watching a viddy. HOOT!

This is enough